Metric system essay

The magnification factors between all A sizes: from to A0 A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 A6 A7 A8 A9 A10 A0 100% 71% 50% 35% 25% 18% % % % % % A1 141% 100% 71% 50% 35% 25% 18% % % % % A2 200% 141% 100% 71% 50% 35% 25% 18% % % % A3 283% 200% 141% 100% 71% 50% 35% 25% 18% % % A4 400% 283% 200% 141% 100% 71% 50% 35% 25% 18% % A5 566% 400% 283% 200% 141% 100% 71% 50% 35% 25% 18% A6 800% 566% 400% 283% 200% 141% 100% 71% 50% 35% 25% A7 1131% 800% 566% 400% 283% 200% 141% 100% 71% 50% 35% A8 1600% 1131% 800% 566% 400% 283% 200% 141% 100% 71% 50% A9 2263% 1600% 1131% 800% 566% 400% 283% 200% 141% 100% 71% A10 3200% 2263% 1600% 1131% 800% 566% 400% 283% 200% 141% 100% Not only the operation of copying machines in offices and libraries, but also repro photography, microfilming, and printing are simplified by the 1:sqrt(2) aspect ratio of ISO paper sizes. Example 2: If you prepare a letter, you will have to know the weight of the content in order to determine the postal fee. This can be very conveniently calculated with the ISO A series paper sizes. Usual typewriter and laser printer paper weighs 80 g/m². An A0 page has an area of 1 m², and the next smaller A series page has half of this area. Therefore, the A4 format has an area of 1/16 m² and weighs with the common paper quality 5 g per page. If we estimate 20 g for a C4 envelope (including some safety margin), then you will be able to put 16 A4 pages into a letter before you reach the 100 g limit for the next higher postal fee. Calculation of the mass of books, newspapers, or packed paper is equally trivial. You probably will not need such calculations often, but they nicely show the beauty of the concept of metric paper sizes. Using standard paper sizes saves money and makes life simpler in many applications. For example, if all scientific journals used only ISO formats, then libraries would have to buy only very few different sizes for the binders. Shelves can be designed such that standard formats will fit in exactly without too much wasted shelf volume. The ISO formats are used for surprisingly many things besides office paper: the German citizen ID card has format A7, both the European Union and the . (!) passport have format B7, and library microfiches have format A6. In some countries (., Germany) even many brands of toilet paper have format A6. Further details Calculating the dimensions The ISO paper sizes are specified in the standard in a table that states their width and height in millimeters. Following the principles described above , the dimensions could be calculated with the following formulas: Format Width [m] Height [m] A n 2 −1/4− n /2 2 1/4− n /2 B n 2 − n /2 2 1/2− n /2 C n 2 −1/8− n /2 2 3/8− n /2 However, the actual millimeter dimensions in the standard have been calculated instead by using the above values only at n = 0, and then progressively dividing these values by two to obtain the smaller sizes, each time rounding the result to the next lower integer number of millimeters ( floor function ). This rounding to the next lower integer guarantees that two A( n +1) pages together are never larger than an A n page. The following programs demonstrate this algorithm in several programming languages:

  • iso- – C version
  • iso- – Python version
Aspect ratios other than sqrt(2) Sometimes, paper formats with a different aspect ratio are required for labels, tickets, and other purposes. These should preferably be derived by cutting standard series sizes into 3, 4, or 8 equal parts, parallel with the shorter side, such that the ratio between the longer and shorter side is greater than the square root of two. Some example long formats in millimeters are:

Enhanced geothermal energy is potentially a nearly limitless source of competitive electricity. Increased energy efficiency is already saving businesses money and reducing emissions significantly. New generations of biomass energy — ones that do not rely on food crops, unlike the mistaken strategy of making ethanol from corn — are extremely promising. Sustainable forestry and agriculture both make economic as well as environmental sense. And all of these options would spread even more rapidly if we stopped subsidizing Big Oil and Coal and put a price on carbon that reflected the true cost of fossil energy — either through the much-maligned cap-and-trade approach, or through a revenue-neutral tax swap.

During the period leading up to and following the French Revolution of 1789, French intellectuals believed that every aspect of existence could and should be treated in highly rational, scientific terms. Out of these ideas arose much folly, particularly during the Reign of Terror in 1793, but one of the more positive outcomes was the metric system. This system is decimal—that is, based entirely on the number 10 and powers of 10, making it easy to relate one figure to another. For instance, there are 100 centimeters in a meter and 1,000 meters in a kilometer.

In book III, Locke discusses abstract general ideas. Everything that exists in the world is a particular “thing.” General ideas occur when we group similar particular ideas and take away, or abstract, the differences until we are left only with the similarities. We then use these similarities to create a general term, such as “tree,” which is also a general idea. We form abstract general ideas for three reasons: it would be too hard to remember a different word for every particular thing that exists, having a different word for everything that exists would obstruct communication, and the goal of science is to generalize and categorize everything.

Metric system essay

metric system essay

In book III, Locke discusses abstract general ideas. Everything that exists in the world is a particular “thing.” General ideas occur when we group similar particular ideas and take away, or abstract, the differences until we are left only with the similarities. We then use these similarities to create a general term, such as “tree,” which is also a general idea. We form abstract general ideas for three reasons: it would be too hard to remember a different word for every particular thing that exists, having a different word for everything that exists would obstruct communication, and the goal of science is to generalize and categorize everything.

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