How pH Affects the Break Down of Starch by the Enzyme Amylase
The optimum pH for the reaction of starch with amylase is pH 7. PH
values lower or higher than this value will result in a slower rate of
reaction. Amylase works in the range pH 3 to pH 11.
PH changes affect the structure of an enzyme molecule and therefore
affect its ability to bind with its substrate molecules. Changes in pH
affect the ionic bonds and hydrogen bonds that hold the enzyme
together, which naturally affects the rate of reaction of the enzyme
with the substrate. On top if this, the hydrogen ions neutralise the
negative charges of the R groups in the active site so that the
substrate and the active site do not attract and therefore do not
react. The optimum pH for most enzymes is pH7.
In the body, amylase works mainly in the small intestines, where the
acidity from the stomach has been neutralised by the hydrogencarbonate
ions in the pancreatic juices secreted by the pancreas. Therefore, it
follows that if amylase were adapted well to the surroundings which it
is found most commonly at, it would work best in neutral conditions,
which is pH 7. To allow for fluctuations in pH, amylase would need to
work from around pH 3 to pH 11.
Reason/Reference to pilot study
Values can be obtained measuring the breakdown of starch, instead of
just the colour when the iodine solution is added. If not much starch
is broken down, iodine will colour it blue/black so a low %
Transmission will be obtained. If a large volume of starch broken
... middle of paper ...
3 cm³ of distilled water with 3 drops of iodine. It then occurred to
me that this was inaccurate, as amylase solution is cloudy. Therefore,
I blanked it with 2 cm³ water, 1 cm³ amylase and 3 drops of iodine.
I decided to experiment with pHs within the range pH 2 to pH7, as I
discovered that pH 4 is the optimum pH, instead of my predicted pH7.
· Wear goggles to protect eyes from iodine solution
· If spilt on clothes or skin, wash with water to prevent harm to the
· Keep iodine bottle away from edge of table to prevent injury from
The amylase solution is taken from an animal. The owner of the animal
must permit this act. The animal's body must be paid respect when the
enzymes are removed so must therefore be treated carefully.
Read Full Essay Click the button above to view the complete essay, speech, term paper, or research paper
vii. Most of the ailments of human beings have its root in autointoxication. First the drainages are clogged. Constipation, no persiperation, dysmenorrhea are sufficient to put toxins into the blood, imbalancing the liver, and kidney. Kidney is ryhthemically connected with the heart and therfore the toxins from inability of kidneys also find its way into the heart through the blood. Arnica when it thins the blood are working against constipation, absence of persiperation, dysmenorrhia, and scarce urine. Thinning of blood here should not be construed as diluting the blood. Thinning of blood means purification of blood. I am seeing the benefits of Arnica in the methods used by you. However, I shall be failing if I don’t record here that Arnica in usual homeopathic doses . in globules or in little amount of water, used in excess, in high doses for prolonged period, or used completely out of place, or beyond cure, does give antidotable discomforts. I have not seen anyone reporting discomforts after using Arnica 30 in the way you prescribe. I think it is a good beginning and so acknowledged.
Numerous monosaccharides may join together by condensation reactions to give a polysaccharide. The amount of monosaccharides that join together varies and the chain created can be branched or unbranched. The chains may be folded thus making them compact and therefore perfect for storage. The size of the molecule makes them insoluble-another characteristic which suits them for storage as they apply no osmatic influence and do not readily diffuse out of the cell. In hydrolysis, polysaccharides can be changed to their constituent monosaccharides ready for use as respiratory substrates.